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I didn't like running long distances. I didn't want to run long distances. I didn't feel a personal connection to it and I didn't always see how it related to sprinting and jumping.

It was, however, conditioning. I needed to do it to get into shape. How do you build up muscle? You tear it down. Run 'til you drop. When the muscle regenerates, it comes back stronger.

Do you think your mind is any different? In my experience, it's not. A little bit of frustration and hard work is good for the mind, just like a ten mile run is good for the body.

I believe there are two main paths to an abstract, yet practical understanding of chemistry. Both are perfectly acceptable, and can lead to the same destination: The first is to understand chemical ideas through personal discovery and problem solving.

So you want to know what equilibrium is? Well, here's some guiding principles, now sit down and do these problems.

In doing them, you will probably develop a solid notion of what equilibrium means. It's a bit like learning how an engine works by taking it apart piece-by-piece and putting it back together.

The second path is to solve the problems by first having a firm grasp on the ideas. In this approach, the idea of equilibrium is presented, and then you can confirm and enhance your understanding of the idea by applying it It's like learning how an engine works by first studying the purpose for each part.

What's a valve spring for? What is it supposed to do? By building on previous ideas others have proposed, you'll have a much better idea of what to look for when you do take it apart.

Notice that taking it apart problem solving is a fundamental part of both approaches. Every chemistry instructor will do a bit of both: I definitely tend to emphasize the latter.

I believe that if you understand the idea , you can more easily apply it to many different kinds of problems. I therefore spend a fair amount of time in lecture trying to make the ideas clear.

Of course, most people won't understand the idea just from a theoretical discussion of it. That's where problem solving comes in.

I assign problems that I hope will enhance your understanding of the idea. I do not assign problems for their own sake.

Do you care where the equilibrium lies for a mixture of dinitrogen tetroxide and nitrogen dioxide at o C? Neither do I, but if you can solve that problem, you probably have a fairly good notion of what equilibrium means and how it is affected by temperature.

After you solve a problem, you should always ask yourself, 'What idea were they trying to get across? Why did they assign this problem? The point is to help you understand an idea.

If you approach each problem as a template for how to do other problems like it, you have the wrong approach.

This course ought to be much more than a training seminar for laboratory grunt work. On a related tangent, I heard a quote once that went something like this: The human mind is incapable of understanding the answer to a question that has not been asked.

I think there's a profound truth there in many facets of life, but particularly when learning something as abstract and arcane as chemistry.

Take a mathematical example: Taken at face value, this seems to be no more than a useless bit of mathematical trivia; however, if you've asked yourself the question, "If I have a square plot of land 1 mile by 1 mile, how far is it diagonally from corner to corner?

In lecture, I try to help form the questions so that you're not trying to digest answers without the benefit of a context.

It took hundreds of years to formulate the questions we'll discuss, so I think it's horribly unrealistic to expect you to come up with them on your own or in a group.

But ultimately, you need to make the questions your own, so that the answer has meaning. This observation, I think, is why the "personal discovery" approach I mentioned earlier is so popular today.

It focuses your efforts on developing the questions that eventually need to be asked. This is a major change from your high school days, where you probably only thought about a subject during class and ended up doing fine.

Granted, you could take that approach here as well and you'd probably remember enough to get by, at least until the course is done.

That will leave you extra time to marinate in the lukewarm glow of your own mediocrity: Lecture can help to raise questions, clarify ideas, present materials in a way you hadn't thought of before, etc.

The next few sections will elaborate on this. Hopefully in light of the above, the answer to this is clear: The problem sets are meant to be challenging.

They are meant to push you, to encourage you sometimes with the carrot of a few points to think about the problems and ideas in ways you normally wouldn't—to consider, to contemplate, to question—to seek the truth.

Yes, they can be. Do they take a fair amount of your precious time? Will you see problems like them on the exam?

My hope is that the problem sets give you an opportunity to enhance your understanding of the ideas. On the exams, I'm simply trying to find out how deeply you understand the basic ideas.

It's part of my job; I must evaluate your level of understanding at this point in time and report it in a standardized way to others.

So in terms of understanding, I think the problem sets are a vital piece of the puzzle, but again, you'll only get out of them what you put into them.

They are conditioning workouts for your mind If you push yourself, no one may ever know, but over time you'll know what you are capable of intellectually.

If I experience pain, relief will come in due course. If I am offered tribulation, it will serve for my purification.

Does gold shine in the craftsman's furnace? It will shine later when it forms part of the collar, when it is jewelry.

But, for the time being, it puts up with being in the fire because when it sheds its impurities it will acquire its brilliant shine. I post my detailed solutions to the problems on the course webpage on their due date.

So, if I don't have them corrected or returned to you as fast as you'd like, you can still study from them using the solutions provided. Finally, I have another page here with much more on how to approach the problem sets constructively.

There are some general, common-sense type things that are worth mentioning: Chemistry does not lend itself to cramming Take advantage of the resources that are available: Practical advice and strategies differ from person to person.

In the old days, all the great physicists that you may have heard of Einstein, Bohr, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, etc.

Many times group work and discussions like these can be just what the doctor ordered. Others myself included prefer to work alone. You are learning to learn and think rigorously in search of the truth.

Part of that means you need to find an approach that works for you. I can offer suggestions, but they should only be part of a more fundamental soul-searching on your part.

Push yourself to find out what you are capable of. Don't be satisfied with a superficial understanding or with rote memorization Thomas Aquinas went further and said: Now, having said all that, it has become increasingly clear in the last several years that many students simply don't know how to study.

They genuinely don't know what 'studying' physically entails, or what it truly means to 'know' something. So, assuming you find yourself in that category, let's start with what it is not: Studying is not trying a few of the suggested problems from the end of the chapter.

Studying is not just doing the problem sets. Studying is not casually flipping through your lecture notes. Studying is not reading through whole chapters of the textbook in one sitting.

So what is it? In the physical sciences, 'studying' generally means picking up a pencil and sitting down with your textbook and lecture notes and working through the material.

That means starting with a blank sheet of paper and thinking through the day's lecture topics in detail, working out from scratch any examples and derivations that were done.

Was this step in the derivation logically necessary, or was it a definition or an approximation? It means doing practice problems as a self-test of your understanding of those ideas.

It means being happy when you get a problem wrong, because you know the process of figuring out why you were wrong is going to be an excellent opportunity to fine-tune your understanding of the ideas.

It means working the assigned problems in different ways to get another perspective on things. Start with the answer and try to calculate the given information.

It means looking for connections between what we did in lecture today and what we did two weeks ago. It means constantly asking yourself why?

Why is this definition necessary? Why do I have to do this? Studying is an active , time consuming activity that requires your full attention and focus.

Or, as Kreeft and Tacelli, S. Don't be content with a shallow understanding of the material. In my experience, studying is enjoyable in the sense that track practice is enjoyable.

I ran track, but you can insert your favorite sport or skill instead. Who really likes running quarter-mile sprints?

Who really likes practicing scales over and over again when learning an instrument? At the time, those things can be frustrating and exhausting, but over time you see the benefit of doing it.

That's what studying should feel like. Now, we all know people that barely got up to a jog in track practice. Generally speaking, those folks didn't get much out of the exercise, and they probably didn't like track practice that much If you push yourself, you'll be proud of your efforts, and over time I think you will enjoy the exercise, even if it's still frustrating and exhausting at times.

It certainly still is for me when I'm learning something new. I would also caution you against an over-emphasis on web based learning.

Now, don't get me wrong: But at the end of the day, we're human beings and we need to engage with other people. We also need time to think , and the internet's instant-gratification paradigm doesn't lend itself to that.

You have been raised amid a culture of mindless entertainment, distraction, and noise; a culture whose greatest fear seems to be the whisper of a still, small voice.

You have an opportunity now in your college years to discover the beauty of silence and serious thought. Don't let it pass by.

I have another page of more specific study suggestions here, as well as typical characteristics and attitudes of A, B, C, and D level students.

I've made it seem like it's all on your shoulders, haven't I? For the most part, it is. Your success or failure in this course will ultimately be a function of your effort, dedication, and God-given potential.

Or, as someone once said as they were summarizing St. Thomas Aquinas' philosophy of teaching: Extrinsic agents—teachers, textbooks, and the whole range of the social tradition, are merely the conditions of its development.

They are aids; the process is one of self-development. Just remember, as Weigel noted: As a human being made in the image of your Creator, you are capable of greatness, and you are not in this alone.

If you feel yourself falling behind, please come and see me—even if you can't identify a specific problem. If I think you're doing fine, I'll say so.

If not, we'll figure out how to get you back up to speed. If you need some other form of assistance, please don't hesitate to ask.

If you want to learn, I want to help. Don't wait until it's too late to do anything. Yes, there will come a time when it's too late to do anything.

For much more practical help advice, see this page. Given the above, I have implied that there are two basic approaches to this course.

The following practical questions may help you to see where your philosophies lie: Do you find yourself spending about three hours or more studying outside of lecture for every hour in lecture?

Do you question the material, and challenge yourself to develop a deeper understanding? Do you test your understanding by doing the suggested problems?

After studying, do you feel like you could teach someone else the material and answer their questions? Do you spend some time just thinking about the ideas or discussing problems with others so that you begin to understand things in your own way?

Do you consider your time here a unique opportunity to better yourself? Do you only think about chemistry in lecture?

Do you use the textbook only as a reference and source of suggested problems? Do you approach the suggested problems as templates for how to do other problems like them?

Do you forget the relevant ideas shortly after the exam i. Do you constantly ask yourself, " Will I need to know this for the exam?

No one can force you to take either approach. I propose that you will benefit more from the former, but at the end of the day it really is up to you.

I'm simply throwing all of this out there as something for you to consider. A Pedagogical Philosophy a. A Guide to General Chemistry The following was originally meant as a guide to help students get into the right mindset for studying general chemistry as I M.

I think Shakespeare summarized both of these points well when he wrote: What do I need to know for the exam?

Everything, and in great detail. You do yourself a great disservice if you approach this course as a list of things to temporarily memorize. Instead, your goal should be to learn some chemistry.

You're literally paying too much to settle for anything less, not to mention the fact that it's beneath your dignity to do any less.

Now, I don't mean to fault you for asking the question. I remember asking my professor what I needed to know for the exam once.

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The common view among most economists is that Roosevelt's New Deal policies either caused or accelerated the recovery, although his policies were never aggressive enough to bring the economy completely out of recession.

Some economists have also called attention to the positive effects from expectations of reflation and rising nominal interest rates that Roosevelt's words and actions portended.

According to Christina Romer , the money supply growth caused by huge international gold inflows was a crucial source of the recovery of the United States economy, and that the economy showed little sign of self-correction.

The gold inflows were partly due to devaluation of the U. Schwartz also attributed the recovery to monetary factors, and contended that it was much slowed by poor management of money by the Federal Reserve System.

Former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke agreed that monetary factors played important roles both in the worldwide economic decline and eventual recovery.

Women's primary role were as housewives; without a steady flow of family income, their work became much harder in dealing with food and clothing and medical care.

Birthrates fell everywhere, as children were postponed until families could financially support them. Among the few women in the labor force, layoffs were less common in the white-collar jobs and they were typically found in light manufacturing work.

However, there was a widespread demand to limit families to one paid job, so that wives might lose employment if their husband was employed.

In rural and small-town areas, women expanded their operation of vegetable gardens to include as much food production as possible.

In the United States, agricultural organizations sponsored programs to teach housewives how to optimize their gardens and to raise poultry for meat and eggs.

Quilts were created for practical use from various inexpensive materials and increased social interaction for women and promoted camaraderie and personal fulfillment.

Oral history provides evidence for how housewives in a modern industrial city handled shortages of money and resources.

Often they updated strategies their mothers used when they were growing up in poor families. Cheap foods were used, such as soups, beans and noodles.

They purchased the cheapest cuts of meat—sometimes even horse meat—and recycled the Sunday roast into sandwiches and soups.

They sewed and patched clothing, traded with their neighbors for outgrown items, and made do with colder homes. New furniture and appliances were postponed until better days.

Many women also worked outside the home, or took boarders, did laundry for trade or cash, and did sewing for neighbors in exchange for something they could offer.

Extended families used mutual aid—extra food, spare rooms, repair-work, cash loans—to help cousins and in-laws.

In Japan, official government policy was deflationary and the opposite of Keynesian spending. Consequently, the government launched a nationwide campaign to induce households to reduce their consumption, focusing attention on spending by housewives.

In Germany, the government tried to reshape private household consumption under the Four-Year Plan of to achieve German economic self-sufficiency.

The Nazi women's organizations, other propaganda agencies and the authorities all attempted to shape such consumption as economic self-sufficiency was needed to prepare for and to sustain the coming war.

The organizations, propaganda agencies and authorities employed slogans that called up traditional values of thrift and healthy living.

However, these efforts were only partly successful in changing the behavior of housewives. Many economists believe that government spending on the war caused or at least accelerated recovery from the Great Depression, though some consider that it did not play a very large role in the recovery.

It did help in reducing unemployment. The rearmament policies leading up to World War II helped stimulate the economies of Europe in — By , unemployment in Britain had fallen to 1.

The mobilization of manpower following the outbreak of war in ended unemployment. When the United States entered into the war in , it finally eliminated the last effects from the Great Depression and brought the U.

Businessmen ignored the mounting national debt and heavy new taxes, redoubling their efforts for greater output to take advantage of generous government contracts.

The majority of countries set up relief programs and most underwent some sort of political upheaval, pushing them to the right.

Many of the countries in Europe and Latin America that were democracies saw them overthrown by some form of dictatorship or authoritarian rule, most famously in Germany in The Dominion of Newfoundland gave up democracy voluntarily.

Australia's dependence on agricultural and industrial exports meant it was one of the hardest-hit developed countries. By , GDP had shrunk to less than half of what it had been in , exacting a terrible toll in unemployment and business failures.

Influenced profoundly by the Great Depression, many national leaders promoted the development of local industry in an effort to insulate the economy from future external shocks.

After six years of government austerity measures , which succeeded in reestablishing Chile's creditworthiness, Chileans elected to office during the —58 period a succession of center and left-of-center governments interested in promoting economic growth by means of government intervention.

Consequently, as in other Latin American countries, protectionism became an entrenched aspect of the Chilean economy. China was largely unaffected by the Depression, mainly by having stuck to the Silver standard.

China and the British colony of Hong Kong, which followed suit in this regard in September , would be the last to abandon the silver standard.

In addition, the Nationalist Government also acted energetically to modernize the legal and penal systems, stabilize prices, amortize debts, reform the banking and currency systems, build railroads and highways, improve public health facilities, legislate against traffic in narcotics and augment industrial and agricultural production.

On November 3, , the government instituted the fiat currency fapi reform, immediately stabilizing prices and also raising revenues for the government.

The sharp fall in commodity prices, and the steep decline in exports, hurt the economies of the European colonies in Africa and Asia.

For example, sisal had recently become a major export crop in Kenya and Tanganyika. During the depression it suffered severely from low prices and marketing problems that affected all colonial commodities in Africa.

Sisal producers established centralized controls for the export of their fibre. The depression severely hurt the export-based Belgian Congo economy because of the drop in international demand for raw materials and for agricultural products.

For example, the price of peanuts fell from to 25 centimes. In the country as a whole, the wage labour force decreased by Political protests were not common.

However, there was a growing demand that the paternalistic claims be honored by colonial governments to respond vigorously. The theme was that economic reforms were more urgently needed than political reforms.

Students were trained in traditional arts, crafts, and farming techniques and were then expected to return to their own villages and towns.

The crisis affected France a bit later than other countries, hitting hard around The depression was relatively mild: Ultra-nationalist groups also saw increased popularity, although democracy prevailed into World War II.

France's relatively high degree of self-sufficiency meant the damage was considerably less than in nations like Germany. The Great Depression hit Germany hard.

The impact of the Wall Street Crash forced American banks to end the new loans that had been funding the repayments under the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan.

The financial crisis escalated out of control and mid, starting with the collapse of the Credit Anstalt in Vienna in May.

An international conference in London later in July produced no agreements but on August 19 a standstill agreement froze Germany's foreign liabilities for six months.

The funding only slowed the process. Business failures became more frequent in July, and spread to Romania and Hungary. In the s, Germany repaid all its missed reparations debts.

The government did not increase government spending to deal with Germany's growing crisis, as they were afraid that a high-spending policy could lead to a return of the hyperinflation that had affected Germany in Germany's Weimar Republic was hit hard by the depression, as American loans to help rebuild the German economy now stopped.

Hitler ran for the Presidency in , and while he lost to the incumbent Hindenburg in the election, it marked a point during which both Nazi Party and the Communist parties rose in the years following the crash to altogether possess a Reichstag majority following the general election in July Hitler followed an autarky economic policy, creating a network of client states and economic allies in central Europe and Latin America.

By cutting wages and taking control of labor unions, plus public works spending, unemployment fell significantly by Large-scale military spending played a major role in the recovery.

The reverberations of the Great Depression hit Greece in The Bank of Greece tried to adopt deflationary policies to stave off the crises that were going on in other countries, but these largely failed.

For a brief period the drachma was pegged to the U. Remittances from abroad declined sharply and the value of the drachma began to plummet from 77 drachmas to the dollar in March to drachmas to the dollar in April, This was especially harmful to Greece as the country relied on imports from the UK, France and the Middle East for many necessities.

Greece went off the gold standard in April, and declared a moratorium on all interest payments. The country also adopted protectionist policies such as import quotas, which a number of European countries did during the time period.

Protectionist policies coupled with a weak drachma, stifling imports, allowed Greek industry to expand during the Great Depression.

These industries were for the most part "built on sand" as one report of the Bank of Greece put it, as without massive protection they would not have been able to survive.

Despite the global depression, Greece managed to suffer comparatively little, averaging an average growth rate of 3.

The dictatorial regime of Ioannis Metaxas took over the Greek government in , and economic growth was strong in the years leading up to the Second World War.

The Depression hit Iceland hard as the value of exports plummeted. The total value of Icelandic exports fell from 74 million kronur in to 48 million in , and was not to rise again to the pre level until after How much India was affected has been hotly debated.

Historians have argued that the Great Depression slowed long-term industrial development. However, there were major negative impacts on the jute industry, as world demand fell and prices plunged.

Local markets in agriculture and small-scale industry showed modest gains. Frank Barry and Mary E. Daly have argued that:.

The Great Depression hit Italy very hard. This led to a financial crisis peaking in and major government intervention.

IRI did rather well with its new responsibilities—restructuring, modernising and rationalising as much as it could.

It was a significant factor in post development. The Great Depression did not strongly affect Japan. Japan's Finance Minister Takahashi Korekiyo was the first to implement what have come to be identified as Keynesian economic policies: Takahashi used the Bank of Japan to sterilize the deficit spending and minimize resulting inflationary pressures.

Econometric studies have identified the fiscal stimulus as especially effective. The devaluation of the currency had an immediate effect.

Japanese textiles began to displace British textiles in export markets. The deficit spending proved to be most profound and went into the purchase of munitions for the armed forces.

By , Japan was already out of the depression. By , Takahashi realized that the economy was in danger of overheating, and to avoid inflation, moved to reduce the deficit spending that went towards armaments and munitions.

This resulted in a strong and swift negative reaction from nationalists, especially those in the army, culminating in his assassination in the course of the February 26 Incident.

This had a chilling effect on all civilian bureaucrats in the Japanese government. From , the military's dominance of the government continued to grow.

The deficit spending had a transformative effect on Japan. Japan's industrial production doubled during the s.

Further, in the list of the largest firms in Japan was dominated by light industries, especially textile companies many of Japan's automakers, such as Toyota , have their roots in the textile industry.

By light industry had been displaced by heavy industry as the largest firms inside the Japanese economy. Because of high levels of U.

Within the region, Chile , Bolivia and Peru were particularly badly affected. Before the crisis, links between the world economy and Latin American economies had been established through American and British investment in Latin American exports to the world.

As a result, Latin Americans export industries felt the depression quickly. World prices for commodities such as wheat, coffee and copper plunged.

Exports from all of Latin America to the U. But on the other hand, the depression led the area governments to develop new local industries and expand consumption and production.

Following the example of the New Deal, governments in the area approved regulations and created or improved welfare institutions that helped millions of new industrial workers to achieve a better standard of living.

From roughly to , the Netherlands suffered a deep and exceptionally long depression. This depression was partly caused by the after-effects of the Stock Market Crash of in the U.

Government policy, especially the very late dropping of the Gold Standard, played a role in prolonging the depression.

The Great Depression in the Netherlands led to some political instability and riots, and can be linked to the rise of the Dutch national-socialist party NSB.

The depression in the Netherlands eased off somewhat at the end of , when the government finally dropped the Gold Standard, but real economic stability did not return until after World War II.

New Zealand was especially vulnerable to worldwide depression, as it relied almost entirely on agricultural exports to the United Kingdom for its economy.

The drop in exports led to a lack of disposable income from the farmers, who were the mainstay of the local economy.

Jobs disappeared and wages plummeted, leaving people desperate and charities unable to cope. In , riots occurred among the unemployed in three of the country's main cities Auckland , Dunedin , and Wellington.

Many were arrested or injured through the tough official handling of these riots by police and volunteer "special constables". With the budget balanced in , the effects of the depression were relaxed through harsh measures towards budget balance and autarky , causing social discontent but stability and, eventually, an impressive economic growth.

In the years immediately preceding the depression, negative developments in the island and world economies perpetuated an unsustainable cycle of subsistence for many Puerto Rican workers.

The s brought a dramatic drop in Puerto Rico's two primary exports, raw sugar and coffee, due to a devastating hurricane in and the plummeting demand from global markets in the latter half of the decade.

As world trade slumped, demand for South African agricultural and mineral exports fell drastically. The Carnegie Commission on Poor Whites had concluded in that nearly one third of Afrikaners lived as paupers.

The social discomfort caused by the depression was a contributing factor in the split between the "gesuiwerde" purified and "smelter" fusionist factions within the National Party and the National Party's subsequent fusion with the South African Party.

The Soviet Union was the world's sole communist state with very little international trade. Its economy was not tied to the rest of the world and was only slightly affected by the Great Depression.

At the time of the Depression, the Soviet economy was growing steadily, fuelled by intensive investment in heavy industry. The apparent economic success of the Soviet Union at a time when the capitalist world was in crisis led many Western intellectuals to view the Soviet system favorably.

As the Great Depression ground on and unemployment soared, intellectuals began unfavorably comparing their faltering capitalist economy to Russian Communism.

More than ten years after the Revolution, Communism was finally reaching full flower, according to New York Times reporter Walter Duranty , a Stalin fan who vigorously debunked accounts of the Ukraine famine , a man-made disaster that would leave millions dead.

Soviet Russia was at first happy to help these immigrants settle, because they believed they were victims of capitalism who had come to help the Soviet cause.

However, when the Soviet Union entered the war in , most of these Germans and Finns were arrested and sent to Siberia, while their Russian-born children were placed in orphanages.

Their fate is unknown. Spain had a relatively isolated economy, with high protective tariffs and was not one of the main countries affected by the Depression.

The banking system held up well, as did agriculture. By far the most serious negative impact came after from the heavy destruction of infrastructure and manpower by the civil war, — Many talented workers were forced into permanent exile.

By staying neutral in the Second World War, and selling to both sides, the economy avoided further disasters. By the s, Sweden had what America's Life magazine called in the "world's highest standard of living".

Sweden was also the first country worldwide to recover completely from the Great Depression. Taking place in the midst of a short-lived government and a less-than-a-decade old Swedish democracy, events such as those surrounding Ivar Kreuger who eventually committed suicide remain infamous in Swedish history.

The Social Democrats under Per Albin Hansson formed their first long-lived government in based on strong interventionist and welfare state policies, monopolizing the office of Prime Minister until with the sole and short-lived exception of Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp 's "summer cabinet" in During forty years of hegemony, it was the most successful political party in the history of Western liberal democracy.

The World Depression broke at a time when the United Kingdom had still not fully recovered from the effects of the First World War more than a decade earlier.

The country was driven off the gold standard in MacDonald wanted to resign, but King George V insisted he remain and form an all-party coalition " National Government ".

The Conservative and Liberals parties signed on, along with a small cadre of Labour, but the vast majority of Labour leaders denounced MacDonald as a traitor for leading the new government.

Britain went off the gold standard, and suffered relatively less than other major countries in the Great Depression. The effects on the northern industrial areas of Britain were immediate and devastating, as demand for traditional industrial products collapsed.

By the end of unemployment had more than doubled from 1 million to 2. About , unemployed men were sent to the work camps, which continued in operation until In the less industrial Midlands and Southern England , the effects were short-lived and the later s were a prosperous time.

Growth in modern manufacture of electrical goods and a boom in the motor car industry was helped by a growing southern population and an expanding middle class.

Agriculture also saw a boom during this period. Hoover's first measures to combat the depression were based on voluntarism by businesses not to reduce their workforce or cut wages.

But businesses had little choice and wages were reduced, workers were laid off, and investments postponed. The intent of the Act was to encourage the purchase of American-made products by increasing the cost of imported goods, while raising revenue for the federal government and protecting farmers.

Other nations increased tariffs on American-made goods in retaliation, reducing international trade, and worsening the Depression. In , Hoover urged bankers to set up the National Credit Corporation [] so that big banks could help failing banks survive.

But bankers were reluctant to invest in failing banks, and the National Credit Corporation did almost nothing to address the problem.

By , unemployment had reached The final attempt of the Hoover Administration to stimulate the economy was the passage of the Emergency Relief and Construction Act ERA which included funds for public works programs such as dams and the creation of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation RFC in It is important to note, however, that after volunteerism failed, Hoover developed ideas that laid the framework for parts of the New Deal.

Shortly after President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated in , drought and erosion combined to cause the Dust Bowl , shifting hundreds of thousands of displaced persons off their farms in the Midwest.

From his inauguration onward, Roosevelt argued that restructuring of the economy would be needed to prevent another depression or avoid prolonging the current one.

New Deal programs sought to stimulate demand and provide work and relief for the impoverished through increased government spending and the institution of financial reforms.

During a "bank holiday" that lasted five days, the Emergency Banking Act was signed into law. It provided for a system of reopening sound banks under Treasury supervision, with federal loans available if needed.

The Securities Act of comprehensively regulated the securities industry. Although amended, key provisions of both Acts are still in force.

The Agricultural Adjustment Act provided incentives to cut farm production in order to raise farming prices. It forced businesses to work with government to set price codes through the NRA to fight deflationary "cut-throat competition" by the setting of minimum prices and wages , labor standards, and competitive conditions in all industries.

It encouraged unions that would raise wages, to increase the purchasing power of the working class. These reforms, together with several other relief and recovery measures, are called the First New Deal.

Economic stimulus was attempted through a new alphabet soup of agencies set up in and and previously extant agencies such as the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

In the spring of , American industrial production exceeded that of and remained level until June In June , the Roosevelt administration cut spending and increased taxation in an attempt to balance the federal budget.

Industrial production fell almost 30 per cent within a few months and production of durable goods fell even faster. Unemployment jumped from As unemployment rose, consumers' expenditures declined, leading to further cutbacks in production.

By May retail sales began to increase, employment improved, and industrial production turned up after June Social Security remained in place.

Between and , federal expenditure tripled, and Roosevelt's critics charged that he was turning America into a socialist state. Keynesianism generally remained the most influential economic school in the United States and in parts of Europe until the periods between the s and the s, when Milton Friedman and other neoliberal economists formulated and propagated the newly created theories of neoliberalism and incorporated them into the Chicago School of Economics as an alternative approach to the study of economics.

Neoliberalism went on to challenge the dominance of the Keynesian school of Economics in the mainstream academia and policy-making in the United States, having reached its peak in popularity in the election of the presidency of Ronald Reagan in the United States, and Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom.

The Great Depression has been the subject of much writing, as authors have sought to evaluate an era that caused both financial and emotional trauma.

Perhaps the most noteworthy and famous novel written on the subject is The Grapes of Wrath , published in and written by John Steinbeck , who was awarded both the Nobel Prize for literature and the Pulitzer Prize for the work.

The novel focuses on a poor family of sharecroppers who are forced from their home as drought, economic hardship, and changes in the agricultural industry occur during the Great Depression.

Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men is another important novella about a journey during the Great Depression. Margaret Atwood's Booker prize-winning The Blind Assassin is likewise set in the Great Depression, centering on a privileged socialite's love affair with a Marxist revolutionary.

The era spurred the resurgence of social realism, practiced by many who started their writing careers on relief programs, especially the Federal Writers' Project in the U.

A number of works for younger audiences are also set during the Great Depression, among them the Kit Kittredge series of American Girl books written by Valerie Tripp and illustrated by Walter Rane , released to tie in with the dolls and playsets sold by the company.

The stories, which take place during the early to mid s in Cincinnati , focuses on the changes brought by the Depression to the titular character's family and how the Kittredges dealt with it.

An American Girl was later released in to positive reviews. The term "The Great Depression" is most frequently attributed to British economist Lionel Robbins , whose book The Great Depression is credited with formalizing the phrase, [] though Hoover is widely credited with popularizing the term, [] [] informally referring to the downturn as a depression, with such uses as "Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncement" December , Message to Congress , and "I need not recount to you that the world is passing through a great depression" The term " depression " to refer to an economic downturn dates to the 19th century, when it was used by varied Americans and British politicians and economists.

Indeed, the first major American economic crisis, the Panic of , was described by then-president James Monroe as "a depression", [] and the most recent economic crisis, the Depression of —21 , had been referred to as a "depression" by then-president Calvin Coolidge.

Financial crises were traditionally referred to as "panics", most recently the major Panic of , and the minor Panic of —11 , though the crisis was called "The Crash", and the term "panic" has since fallen out of use.

At the time of the Great Depression, the term "The Great Depression" was already used to refer to the period —96 in the United Kingdom , or more narrowly —79 in the United States , which has retroactively been renamed the Long Depression.

Other economic downturns have been called a "great depression", but none had been as widespread, or lasted for so long. Various nations have experienced brief or extended periods of economic downturns, which were referred to as "depressions", but none have had such a widespread global impact.

The collapse of the Soviet Union , and the breakdown of economic ties which followed, led to a severe economic crisis and catastrophic fall in the standards of living in the s in post-Soviet states and the former Eastern Bloc , [] which was even worse than the Great Depression.

The worldwide economic decline after has been compared to the s. The causes of the Great Recession seem similar to the Great Depression, but significant differences exist.

The previous chairman of the Federal Reserve , Ben Bernanke , had extensively studied the Great Depression as part of his doctoral work at MIT, and implemented policies to manipulate the money supply and interest rates in ways that were not done in the s.

Generally speaking, the recovery of the world's financial systems tended to be quicker during the Great Depression of the s as opposed to the lates recession.

If we contrast the s with the Crash of where gold went through the roof, it is clear that the U. Both currencies in and were the U.

Where we have experienced inflation since the Crash of , the situation was much different in the s when deflation set in. Unlike the deflation of the early s, the U.

In terms of the stock market, nearly three years after the crash, the DJIA dropped 8. Where we have experienced great volatility with large intraday swings in the past two months, in , we have not experienced any record-shattering daily percentage drops to the tune of the s.

Where many of us may have that '30s feeling, in light of the DJIA, the CPI, and the national unemployment rate, we are simply not living in the '30s.

Some individuals may feel as if we are living in a depression, but for many others the current global financial crisis simply does not feel like a depression akin to the s.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the severe worldwide economic downturn in the s.

Timeline of the Great Depression. Causes of the Great Depression. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled European banking crisis of Great Depression in Australia.

Great Depression in Canada. Great Depression in Chile. Great Depression in France. Economic history of Greece and the Greek world.

Great Depression in India. Economic history of the Republic of Ireland. Economic history of Italy. Great Depression in Latin America.

Great Depression in the Netherlands. Economic history of Portugal. Great Depression in South Africa. Economic history of Spain.

And the great owners, who must lose their land in an upheaval, the great owners with access to history, with eyes to read history and to know the great fact: And that companion fact: And the little screaming fact that sounds through all history: Comparisons between the Great Recession and the Great Depression.

Great Depression portal s portal. Principles of Macroeconomics 3rd ed. US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Civil War to the Present.

Archived from the original on Archived from the original on May 17, National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved April 5, Journal of Monetary Economics.

Historic Events for Students: The Great Depression Volume I ed. Worlds together, worlds apart: Barnes, The European world: The Results of a Survey on Forty Propositions.

Economics in the Long Run: New Deal Theorists and Their Legacies, — University of North Carolina Press. The Great Contraction, — New Edition.

Essays on the Great Depression. Bernanke 8 Nov , FederalReserve. Remarks by Governor Ben S. The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on April 10, The Creature from Jekyll Island: Launching the New Deal , ch.

Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. Practice and Principles — analysis of history of margin credit regulations — Statistical Data Included".

New England Economic Review. The American Economic Review. The American Economic Association. Journal of Economic History. Kantorovich, Joan Robinson, Paul A.

Foundation for Economic Education. Retrieved October 23, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved October 24, There are more important things in life than chemistry.

Having said that, let me be clear: I'm not saying that I think chemistry is unimportant or irrelevant. Chemists have made, and will continue to make, discoveries that improve our standard of living and help people ; sometimes in obvious ways, other times in more subtle ways.

I will routinely embarrass myself with fits of unbridled chemical enthusiasm. I'm simply recognizing the fact that one can enter heaven without knowing any chemistry.

So acknowledging this, along with the practical truth that your current vocational path requires a certain degree of chemical knowledge, is there a more fundamental meaning to general chemistry?

Let's begin with a little background: Aristotle said there were three "whys" or, as Peter Kreeft 'krehft' puts it, " The theoretical sciences seek the truth for the sake of knowing the truth, and any practical applications that result are considered a bonus.

Productive sciences perfect some external thing in the material world that we use; practical sciences perfect our own action, our own lives; and theoretical sciences perfect our very selves, our souls, our minds.

They make us bigger persons. And that is the reason for going to college in the first place: Or again, from Kreeft and Tacelli, S. Always keep in mind that truth is not merely the accumulation of data, as useful as that data might be; it's something deeper: Truth speaks to the individual in his or her entirety, inviting us to respond with our whole being.

How does this apply specifically to chemistry? I see two major points of departure. First, we can use chemistry as a vehicle to ask fundamental questions about nature and our place in it: What "laws" seem to govern light and matter?

Can we even begin to understand why the good Lord decided to put the physical world together the way he did? We may get some idea of this by observing both the macro universe our earth, the planets, the stars and galaxies and the micro universe cells, atoms, elementary particles.

As an educated person, you must learn to seek the truth: Why are things as they are and not some other way? Is science the best context in which to ask this question?

The remarkable thing about nature is that it is mathematically consistent. As far as we can tell, it obeys the human invention of mathematics.

That in itself is quite remarkable. There is a right answer, and there is a wrong answer. Often times the truth of the matter is clear, because we can perform experiments to test our predictions.

You can find the right answer if you know the basic principles of the problem and think logically. What better way to learn to seek the truth than to study the physical sciences?

Along the way, we also learn humility: Happy is the man who meditates on wisdom and reasons intelligently, who reflects in his heart on her ways and ponders her secrets.

John Paul II's biographer George Weigel has written, "The brave new world tells us that we ought to settle for a middling happiness in a life free of trouble.

Catholicism tells us not only that we are capable of greatness, but that greatness is demanded of us. Obviously learning chemistry is not the kind of greatness the Pope had in mind, but it is a real opportunity to be a "bigger person" nonetheless.

There is no doubt that it would be easier to settle for a half-hearted effort, especially in something as trivial as a general chemistry course, but are we not called to something greater?

I think Shakespeare summarized both of these points well when he wrote:. What is a man, If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed?

A beast, no more! Sure he that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unus'd.

Act 4, Scene 4 back to top Fine For many of you, deep down this is the bottom line. You've got bigger fish to fry: I just want to get a decent grade and move on with what I really want to do.

I will not fault you for those thoughts. I've had them myself. With apologies to the psychology majors out there: Will this dopey child psych course ever be done?

I challenge you to set these feelings aside. Try to find the intrinsic worth of this course. I hope it's there!

How can you get the most out of your time here? If not in the material, then in the mental exercise. Find the good in it—you have to be here anyway.

If you can find something to enjoy in the course rather than just tolerate it, you will better yourself, even if you hate chemistry.

Heck, you may even be surprised to find some interesting tidbits here and there. If the only thing you are concerned about is your grade, you will most likely have trouble with this course.

The reasons are eminently practical: Every problem is unique. Every definition is new. Can it be done? It's a first-class pain in the butt, though, and it's hard.

In my view, it's much easier to learn it than memorize it, although the two are complimentary. So let's say you've read through all this, and you're still thinking to yourself, "I just don't care I don't like chemistry.

It doesn't speak to me. I don't see how it relates to my everyday life. I used to run a lot of track and field, and the first few weeks were always spent running long distances.

I was a sprinter and a jumper. I didn't like running long distances. I didn't want to run long distances. I didn't feel a personal connection to it and I didn't always see how it related to sprinting and jumping.

It was, however, conditioning. I needed to do it to get into shape. How do you build up muscle? You tear it down. Run 'til you drop. When the muscle regenerates, it comes back stronger.

Do you think your mind is any different? In my experience, it's not. A little bit of frustration and hard work is good for the mind, just like a ten mile run is good for the body.

I believe there are two main paths to an abstract, yet practical understanding of chemistry. Both are perfectly acceptable, and can lead to the same destination: The first is to understand chemical ideas through personal discovery and problem solving.

So you want to know what equilibrium is? Well, here's some guiding principles, now sit down and do these problems.

In doing them, you will probably develop a solid notion of what equilibrium means. It's a bit like learning how an engine works by taking it apart piece-by-piece and putting it back together.

The second path is to solve the problems by first having a firm grasp on the ideas. In this approach, the idea of equilibrium is presented, and then you can confirm and enhance your understanding of the idea by applying it It's like learning how an engine works by first studying the purpose for each part.

What's a valve spring for? What is it supposed to do? By building on previous ideas others have proposed, you'll have a much better idea of what to look for when you do take it apart.

Notice that taking it apart problem solving is a fundamental part of both approaches. Every chemistry instructor will do a bit of both: I definitely tend to emphasize the latter.

I believe that if you understand the idea , you can more easily apply it to many different kinds of problems. I therefore spend a fair amount of time in lecture trying to make the ideas clear.

Of course, most people won't understand the idea just from a theoretical discussion of it. That's where problem solving comes in.

I assign problems that I hope will enhance your understanding of the idea. I do not assign problems for their own sake.

Do you care where the equilibrium lies for a mixture of dinitrogen tetroxide and nitrogen dioxide at o C? Neither do I, but if you can solve that problem, you probably have a fairly good notion of what equilibrium means and how it is affected by temperature.

After you solve a problem, you should always ask yourself, 'What idea were they trying to get across? Why did they assign this problem?

The point is to help you understand an idea. If you approach each problem as a template for how to do other problems like it, you have the wrong approach.

This course ought to be much more than a training seminar for laboratory grunt work. On a related tangent, I heard a quote once that went something like this: The human mind is incapable of understanding the answer to a question that has not been asked.

I think there's a profound truth there in many facets of life, but particularly when learning something as abstract and arcane as chemistry.

Take a mathematical example: Taken at face value, this seems to be no more than a useless bit of mathematical trivia; however, if you've asked yourself the question, "If I have a square plot of land 1 mile by 1 mile, how far is it diagonally from corner to corner?

In lecture, I try to help form the questions so that you're not trying to digest answers without the benefit of a context. It took hundreds of years to formulate the questions we'll discuss, so I think it's horribly unrealistic to expect you to come up with them on your own or in a group.

But ultimately, you need to make the questions your own, so that the answer has meaning. This observation, I think, is why the "personal discovery" approach I mentioned earlier is so popular today.

It focuses your efforts on developing the questions that eventually need to be asked. This is a major change from your high school days, where you probably only thought about a subject during class and ended up doing fine.

Granted, you could take that approach here as well and you'd probably remember enough to get by, at least until the course is done.

That will leave you extra time to marinate in the lukewarm glow of your own mediocrity: Lecture can help to raise questions, clarify ideas, present materials in a way you hadn't thought of before, etc.

The next few sections will elaborate on this. Hopefully in light of the above, the answer to this is clear: The problem sets are meant to be challenging.

They are meant to push you, to encourage you sometimes with the carrot of a few points to think about the problems and ideas in ways you normally wouldn't—to consider, to contemplate, to question—to seek the truth.

Yes, they can be. Do they take a fair amount of your precious time? Will you see problems like them on the exam? My hope is that the problem sets give you an opportunity to enhance your understanding of the ideas.

On the exams, I'm simply trying to find out how deeply you understand the basic ideas. It's part of my job; I must evaluate your level of understanding at this point in time and report it in a standardized way to others.

So in terms of understanding, I think the problem sets are a vital piece of the puzzle, but again, you'll only get out of them what you put into them.

They are conditioning workouts for your mind If you push yourself, no one may ever know, but over time you'll know what you are capable of intellectually.

If I experience pain, relief will come in due course. If I am offered tribulation, it will serve for my purification. Does gold shine in the craftsman's furnace?

It will shine later when it forms part of the collar, when it is jewelry. But, for the time being, it puts up with being in the fire because when it sheds its impurities it will acquire its brilliant shine.

I post my detailed solutions to the problems on the course webpage on their due date. So, if I don't have them corrected or returned to you as fast as you'd like, you can still study from them using the solutions provided.

Finally, I have another page here with much more on how to approach the problem sets constructively. There are some general, common-sense type things that are worth mentioning: Chemistry does not lend itself to cramming Take advantage of the resources that are available: Practical advice and strategies differ from person to person.

In the old days, all the great physicists that you may have heard of Einstein, Bohr, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, etc.

Many times group work and discussions like these can be just what the doctor ordered. Others myself included prefer to work alone. You are learning to learn and think rigorously in search of the truth.

Part of that means you need to find an approach that works for you. I can offer suggestions, but they should only be part of a more fundamental soul-searching on your part.

Push yourself to find out what you are capable of. Don't be satisfied with a superficial understanding or with rote memorization Thomas Aquinas went further and said: Now, having said all that, it has become increasingly clear in the last several years that many students simply don't know how to study.

They genuinely don't know what 'studying' physically entails, or what it truly means to 'know' something. So, assuming you find yourself in that category, let's start with what it is not: Studying is not trying a few of the suggested problems from the end of the chapter.

Studying is not just doing the problem sets. Studying is not casually flipping through your lecture notes. Studying is not reading through whole chapters of the textbook in one sitting.

So what is it? In the physical sciences, 'studying' generally means picking up a pencil and sitting down with your textbook and lecture notes and working through the material.

That means starting with a blank sheet of paper and thinking through the day's lecture topics in detail, working out from scratch any examples and derivations that were done.

Was this step in the derivation logically necessary, or was it a definition or an approximation? It means doing practice problems as a self-test of your understanding of those ideas.

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